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Placing Pennsylvania on the Map: The Seventeenth Century

by Harold Cramer

In the latter seventeenth century Pennsylvania was placed on the map, literally. The maps and processes through which this happened will be covered here. The state made its appearance in the world after 1681 on original maps that incorporate the state and region and in modifications to existing maps. There are three original maps of Pennsylvania itself from the 1680s. The 1681 map used as part of William Penn's promotional literature and probably prepared by John Thornton (or an assistant), and the two well-known maps from Penn's surveyor, Thomas Holme. These maps have been discussed elsewhere and will be mentioned only briefly here. More emphasis will be placed on less familiar maps that first present the state to the world.

Placing Pennsylvania on the Map in the 1680s.

The first map to bear the name Pennsylvania appeared in the summer of 1681 and is titled A Map of the South and East Bounds of Pennsylvania in America Being partly Inhabited . Sold by John Thornton at the Sign of England Scotland and Ireland in the Minorties, and by John Seller at his Shop in Popeshead Alley in Cornhill, London. The map is undated and was prepared as part of the promotional literature for the new colony. It shows the southeastern part of the state west to the Susquehanna River as mostly open country available for sale. Its importance as the first map of Pennsylvania was not realized until a copy was discovered in the Blathwayt Atlas containing text from one of Penn's promotional tracts. [1] This map contained a critical error placing the fortieth parallel forty miles too far south, and was a factor in starting the boundary dispute between Penn and Lord Baltimore. This first map of Pennsylvania is now reasonably well known. But, what is the second published map naming Pennsylvania?

In 1650 Nicolas Sanson, the French mapmaker, produced a map of North America titled Ameriqve Septentrionale that became influential and much copied. It is one of the first maps to represent the Great Lakes in recognizable form and the first to name Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, though Lake Erie is still identified as 'du Chat.' A reduced version of this map appeared in 1657 and a large wall map version in 1666. In 1669 Sanson's son issued a version for which there is also a subsequent state dated 1690. In 1668/69, Richard Blome produced an English version titled A New Mapp of America Septentrionale Designed by Mousieur Sanson..., and there are three more states of this map up to 1693. In 1656, Sanson published a section of his 1650 map showing just the northeast titled Le Canada, ou Nouvelle France. [2]

Now comes the interesting part. Sometime circa 1680, William Berry issued another English version of Sanson's map titled in the cartouche North America Divided into its Principall Parts where are distinguished the several States which belong to the English, Spanish, and French...; and Berry credits Sanson. Across the top of the map is the strip title North America divided into its principall parts viz. Arctick Lands, New North Wales, N. South Wales, N. Brittain, Canada, N. France, N. Scotland, N. England, N. York, N. Jarsey, Mary-land, Virginia, Carolina, Florida, Mexico or N. Spain, N. Mexico, the islands of New Found Land, California, the Antilles... and so forth. The thing to notice is that Pennsylvania is nowhere in this title, which names every polity the mapmaker knew. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that the map title was engraved before Pennsylvania existed, that is, before 1681. And, indeed, the first state of this map contains the notice 'Sold by William Berry at the sign of the Globe between Charring Cross and White hall 1680.'[3] One description of this map says the following: 'Perhaps the most notable feature on the map is the legend Pennsylvania, making this certainly one of the earliest appearances of that name on a map, adding a note of mystery. If the map was really published in the summer of 1680, as a July advertisement in the London Gazette implies, where did Berry get his information about Pennsylvania?' [4]

The Berry map is usually listed as having two versions, 1680 and 1718, and the answer to this mystery is another undated early state of the map. The notice at the bottom of it reads 'Sold by William Berry at the sign of the Globe between Charring Cross and White Hall,' leaving off the date present on the earlier version. It is this undated later map that includes Pennsylvania. This version was prepared in 1681 at the earliest, although map historians have dated both early states of the map to 1680. The question now becomes: Does this map predate the 1681 Thornton & Seller map described above as the first one of Pennsylvania? The answer is very likely no, and this version probably dates circa 1682-1685. Philadelphia is not shown though several other towns are named, which might favor a 1682-1683 dating. This is believed to be the first map of North America to name Pennsylvania. The map was published as a separate sheet and its first datable appearance is 1689 when Berry included it in an untitled atlas of maps he had previously published.[5]

John Seller was the first English mapmaker to compete with the established Dutch cartographers. One of his principal products was the Atlas Maritimus first published in 1675 (another was The English Pilot discussed below). This was a composite atlas, assembled to the wishes of the buyer, and no two are exactly alike. In 1677 Seller acquired other partners, among them William Fisher, a printer of navigation books, and John Thornton, a chart maker getting into printing. This coalition broke up in the early 1680s and Seller himself began publishing geography books and smaller versions of the folio Atlas Maritimus. The small Atlas Maritimus of 1682 (title page left) contains a map titled A Chart of the Sea Coasts of New England New Iarsey Virginia Maryland & Carolina from C. Cod to Hattaras, by John Seller. Although not named in the title, 'Pensel - vania' is shown on the map. A map titled New Jarsey by John Seller is in this same atlas. This map shows the Delaware Bay and river north to above Philadelphia, which is named. This is the first appearance of Philadelphia on a printed map, preceding the 1683 map of Thomas Holme. Chester and New Castle T. are also named and this is the first appearance of the name Chester for the Swedish Uplandt on a map. These two small 1682 maps contain the second appearance of the name Pennsylvania (assuming the Berry map of North America discussed above dates later). The 1682 Atlas Maritimus also contains the following note: 'Pensilvania, a new designed Plantation, granted to William Penn, as Proprietor, situate from 40, to 43 Deg. Nor. Lat. along Delaware River.' [6]

A 1683 folio edition of the Atlas Maritimus contains the first appearance of Pennsylvania on a map of the world. The map was also published separately and is titled A New Mapp of the World According to Mr. Edward Wright Commonly called Mercator's Projection, by John Thornton at the signe of England Scotland & Ireland in the Minories London Ja. Clark sculp. This map is also in the Blathwayt Atlas and is an update of a circa 1676 map by Robert Morden and William Berry. Edward Wright produced the first English map in Mercator's projection in 1599, which appeared in Richard Hakluyt's Principal Navigations... published that year. The inclusion of Pennsylvania on this world map is undoubtedly due to Thornton. Although Thomas Holme is usually credited with being the first Pennsylvania mapmaker, it can be argued that John Thornton deserves the appellation. He was involved in publishing the 1681 map of the state; he possibly had a hand in the 1682 Atlas Maritimus containing the second maps naming the state; and he made this first world map showing the state.[7]

Speaking of world maps, what is the first globe showing Pennsylvania? In the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, Cambridge, there is a fifteen-inch world globe by Robert Morden, William Berry, and Phillip Lea dated to 1683, and the British Library has an uncut sheet of gores for this globe. Pennsylvania is named and this is the first appearance of the state on a globe. [8]

In 1683 came Thomas Holme's original map of Philadelphia, after much pestering by Penn. Some descriptions of the 1681 Pennsylvania map discussed above contend that Holme also prepared it,[9] however this is unlikely. Penn employed Holme as surveyor in 1682 and descriptions of Holme's life make it doubtful he was involved in Pennsylvania mapmaking earlier. [10] Holme traveled to Pennsylvania in 1682 with his family and his most important task was surveying Philadelphia for land sales, and the quicker the better since Penn wanted the money. Penn also wanted a map he could use in advertising similar to the way the 1681 map was used. Philadelphia is the first city in America to have a town plan prepared before building. The plan accompanied A Letter from William Penn Proprietary and Governor of Pennsylvania In America, to the Committee of the Free Society of Traders...of August, 1683: 'To which is added, an Account of the City of Philadelphia Newly laid out. Its Situation between two Navigable Rivers, Delaware and Schuylkill with a Portraiture or Plat-form thereof, wherein the Purchasers' Lots are distinguished by certain Numbers inserted, directing to a Catalogue of the said Purchasers' Names And the Prosperous and Advantageous Settlements of the Society aforesaid within the said City and Country, etc.'[11] Holme's map was indeed called A Portraiture of the City of Philadelphia in the Province of Pennsylvania in America and it lacks any latitude or longitude markings; the map is a rectangle with no compass orientation at all. Penn's letter to the Free Society of Traders was written during his visit to Pennsylvania from October 1682, to August 1684, and has more detailed information on the colony than his earlier promotional pieces. 'The results of Penn's observations in America and especially in Pennsylvania are to be found in the Letter from William Penn...To The Committee of The Free Society of Traders... one of the most effective examples of promotion literature. This letter together with Some Account... and a later pamphlet A Further Account...of Pennsylvania, 1685, are considered to have been Penn's most effective promotion tracts.'[12]

Penn's Letter...to the Free Society of Traders was published in Amsterdam in 1684 as Missive van William Penn...geschreven aan de Commissarissen van de Vrye Societeyt der Handelaars. The Philadelphia map is reduced in size with other small changes from the 1683 version and titled Afteykenige van de Stadt Philadelphia in de Provincie van Penn-sylvania in America na de copie London in Intneder duys lateen synden door Jacob Claus. G. Drogenham, fec. Perhaps it is a stretch, but this could be considered the first Dutch map to name the state.[13]

What is the first French map to show Pennsylvania? In 1684 a French map appeared titled Carte de la Louisiane ou des voyages du Sr. de la Salle & des pays qu'il a decouverts depuis le Novvelle France jufqu'au Golfe Mexique les annees 1679.80.81&82 par Jean Baptiste Louis Franquelin l'an 1684 Paris. [14] The map shows eastern North America plus the Caribbean islands. La Salle was an active French explorer of the Mississippi River Basin, and much of the French knowledge of interior North America came from his expeditions. In this map, 'Pennsilvanie' lies on the Chesapeake Bay, there is no Maryland and an enormous Virginia. Lake Ontario is 'Lac Frontenac' but Lake Erie has its modern name. Franquelin's knowledge of the English colonies was rudimentary, but his concern was to show the French colonies and especially the explorations in the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. The English colonies were tossed in for completeness. Though his knowledge of Pennsylvania's extent was erroneous, he at least had heard of it. A manuscript map by Franquelin titled Carte de l'Amerique Septentrionale has been dated to 1688. It shows New France as far west as the Mississippi valley. The Pennsylvania region is a blank except for the name 'Pensilvanie' and an indication of the Ohio River, 'Belle Riviere.'[15]

In 1684 a previous R. Daniel map of 1679 was reissued and retitled A Map of ye English Empire in ye continent of America viz Virginia Mary Land Carolina New York New Iarsey New England Pennsylvania. Daniel's name was removed from this version to make way for the addition of Pennsylvania in the title cartouche. This appears to be the first previously published map altered to include Pennsylvania (depending on the dating of the Berry North America map mentioned above) and only the third to appear with the name in the title. This map was issued again in 1690 with the unusual title A new map of New England and Annapolis with the country's adjacent.[16]

By 1685 Pennsylvania had arrived in the map world as several maps include and name the state, as well as Philadelphia. A 1678 Thornton & Green map, titled A Mapp of Virginia, Mary=land, New=Jarsey, New=York & New England , was reissued with the same title but with the names of 'Pensylvania', Philadelphia, and Chester added to the landscape. Also from John Thornton came A New Map of New England. New York. New Iarsey. Pensilvania. Maryland. And Virginia. Sold by Iohn Thornton at ye Platt in ye Minories. By Robt. Morden at the Atlas in Corn-hill. And by Phillip Lea at ye Atlas & Hercules in the Poultry. London. This map is of uncertain date though 1685 or 1686 is most reasonable. There were subsequent versions circa 1690, 1715-20, with the later editions bearing a different seller imprint. [17]

The third state of the Visscher New England map was issued in Amsterdam circa 1685 and is probably the first map of the Jansson-Visscher series to include the state although it is not named in the title: Novi Belgii Novaeque Angliae: nec non partis Virginiae Tabula Multis in locis emendata.[18] However, Justus Danckerts issued Novi Belgii Novaeque Angliae nec non Pennsylvaniae , et partis Virginiae Tabula, a Jansson-Visscher map that did include Pennsylvania in the title. The dating of this map is uncertain, though it is usually dated circa 1685 and is virtually identical to the Visscher map. Sometime circa 1670 Danckerts had published the first state of this map, which of course did not include Pennsylvania. In the mid 1680's, he then issued this second version with many modifications including the addition of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania.[19] Thus, either the Danckerts or Visscher maps circa 1685 are the first of the series to include Pennsylvania.

Also in 1685 appears The English Empire in America by R. B. The R. B. is a pseudonym for the publisher Nathaniel Crouch and the map appears in a book of the same name published in London. It shows the coastline from Maine to Carolina severely distorted to fit on a vertical page. Philadelphia is named and 'Bridlinton', which is an old name for Burlington in New Jersey. A German edition of the map and book appeared in 1697 with the map titled Das Englische America.[20]

Finally, in 1685 appears A New Map of Virginia Maryland and the Improved parts of Pennsylvania & New Jersey, sold by Christopher Browne at the Globe near the West End of St. Paul's Church. There was another issue circa 1700 with Browne's imprint removed. John Senex revised the title cartouche in 1719 and published it under his own name in A New General Atlas in 1721. Only southeastern Pennsylvania is shown and settlements along the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers are named. There are several significant things about this map. It is apparently the first to name all three new counties of Chester, Philadelphia, and Bucks together, preceding the 1687 Holme map. The 'Lower Counties' of Delaware are not named, though shown as belonging to Pennsylvania by the absence of a boundary line. The fortieth parallel as the Maryland boundary line passes directly through New Castle Town and a division line is shown halving the Delmarva Peninsula down to Cape Henlopen. This is apparently the first map to show such a division between Maryland and Delaware after the creation of Pennsylvania. However, the very first map to show such a division was the1656 Nicolas Sanson map of the east coast mentioned above, which set off the Swedish settlements.[21]

Penn created the three counties of Philadelphia, Bucks, and Chester in 1682, to balance the three 'Lower Counties' of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex. These Delaware counties were created under the previous tenures of the Dutch and the Duke of York. Penn had petitioned and received from the Duke of York control over these counties in 1682 so he would have unrestricted access to the ocean. Chester was named after the city of the same name in England, and the name appeared on the 1682 Atlas Maritimus map discussed above applied to the Swedish town of Uplandt. The old home of the Penns was in Buckinghamshire and in his Letter... to the Free Society of Traders in August, 1683, Penn refers to Buckingham County: 'The planted part of the province and territories is cast into six counties, Philadelphia, Buckingham, Chester, New Castle, Kent, and Sussex, containing about four thousand souls'.[22] Bucks is a common contraction and became the established name.

The 1687 map of Thomas Holme is the first county land ownership map of Pennsylvania. It was the most important map of the state to appear in the seventeenth century, and indeed in Penn's lifetime; he died in 1718, aged 75 years. Holme had been engaged in land surveying and selling since arriving in Pennsylvania in 1682 as Penn's official Surveyor. His duties were pressing and he did not complete his map of the three counties until 1686. It was sent to London for engraving and printing and issued in 1687 with the title A Map of the Improved Part of the Province of Pennsilvania in America. A subtitle read A Map of the Province of Pennsilvania containing the Three Counties Chester, Philadelphia & Bucks as far as yet Surveyed and Laid out, ye Divisions or distinctions made by ye different Coullers, respects the Settlements by way of Townships. John Thornton and Robert Green published the map. [23] There were two versions, a large five foot by three and a half foot map with nine columns of text along the bottom, and a smaller one about 22 by 16 inches differently subtitled with the names Tho(mas) Holme and the publisher P(hilip) Lea. It is essentially a plat map, delineating property lines and filled with names of owners. No separation is shown between New Castle (in Delaware) and Chester counties and no latitude or longitude markings appear. Many subsequent versions of this map were published.

In 1687 Richard Blome published the book The present state of His Majesties isles and territories in America ..., in which appeared A New Map of Virginia, Maryland, Pensilvania, New Yarsey by Robert Morden.[24] A French edition, L'Amerique Angloise au Description..., appeared in 1688 with the same map under a French title, Nouvelle Carte de la Pensylvanie Maryland Virginia et New Jarsey.' This map shows the Pennsylvania-Maryland boundary passing right through Philadelphia at forty degrees with no New Castle circle. It is also the first map to delineate the western bounds of the state by a straight line running north, though at the wrong longitude.

Robert Morden first issued Geography Rectified: Or A Description of the World, in 1680. This edition was obviously without Pennsylvania. A Second Edition Enlarged by Robert Morden London, Printed for Robert Morden and Thomas Cockerill MDCLXXXVIII, appeared in 1688 as the Roman numerals indicate. It contains on page 567 A New Map of New Jarsey and Pensilvania by Robt. Morden. There was a third edition in 1693 and a fourth in 1700, which were reprints of the second edition. Settlements along the Delaware are indicated and the Susquehanna (called Sasquahanagh) River is shown. Delaware is included as part of Pennsylvania. There is text along the bottom of the map and along the top the title 'A Description of Pensilvania and New Jarsey'. A Map of Florida and the Great Lakes of Canada, by Robt. Morden, appears on page 587 of the Geography Rectified, and is a small map of the east coast from New York to Florida and west to the Mississippi. Pennsylvania is named and the Great Lakes shown with some accuracy, indicating that Morden had access to French maps.

Also published in 1688 was the Dutch sea atlas De Nieuwe Groote Vermeerderde Zee-Atlas by Hendrik Doncker. It contain the chart Pas Caert van Nieu Nederland, Virginia, Nieu Engeland als mede Penn-Silvania, met de Stad Philadelfia. The chart is similar to van Loon and Goos maps of the 1660s, but contains an inset of Thomas Holme's 1683 plan of Philadelphia at upper left. It was reprinted into the next century and a version with changes by Gerard van Keulen appears as late as the 1730s. [25]

Another map that deserves mention is America Setterntrionali colle Nuoue Scoperte fin all' anno 1688 by Vincenzo Coronelli, the Italian cartographer famous for his globes. This map is from one of the gores making up Coronelli's globe of 1688 and carries the name Pensiluania. This is believed to be the second depiction of Pennsylvania on a globe.[26] In 1689 Coronelli issued Partie Orientale du Canada ou de la Nouvelle France. This map shows the northeast from Newfoundland to the Carolinas. Pennsylvania is named but the Delaware region is identified as Novvelle Svede (New Sweden).[27] A companion map by Coronelli is named Partie Occidentale du Canada, and shows the Great Lakes region, all of which is considered part of New France; Pennsylvania is not identified. This Great Lakes map was revised, simplified, and published again by Coronelli in 1693 titled La Lovisiana, Parte Settentrionalle , and is one of the most attractive maps of the period.

The most important atlas issued in late century from an American perspective was The English Pilot: The Fourth Book, from the Seller, Thornton, Fisher group in 1689. The English Pilot was a sea atlas used for sailing instructions by English mariners, and The Fourth Book covered American waters. Seller himself appears to have had little involvement with the Fourth Book. In 1671 Seller had issued the first edition of The English Pilot: The First Book, which covered the English coast and was the first English sea atlas to offer competition to the Dutch publishers. Seller was a supplier of nautical instruments and his first English Pilot was made with old copper plates bought from Dutch cartographers. The atlas began to succeed when Thornton, Fisher, and others joined and contributed new plates, and a second edition appeared in 1677. The Fourth Book was the first collection of English charts detailing the Atlantic coast of North America and was first published in 1689.[28] It contained the two charts Virginia, Maryland, Pennsilvania, East & West New Jarsey, by John Thornton and William Fisher, and A New Chart of the Sea Coast of Newfoundland, New Scotland, New England, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsilvania, and part of Carolina, by Iohn Thornton hydrographer. This chart, as the name indicates, covered the entire northeast coast.

Also in 1689 Nicolas Visscher published Nova tabula geographica complectens Boriealiorem Americae partema . This map was based upon the original Jansson-Visscher maps but extends the coverage both northward and southward. There are several versions, which appear in Dutch atlases into the 1700s.[29] An interesting thing about the map is its depiction of Pennsylvania extending northward to encompass Lake Ontario. The name is in three parts Penn - syl - vania covering forty to forty-five degrees of latitude. Could Visscher have confused the Penn grant of three degrees of latitude and five degrees of longitude? The city of Philadelphia is prominently displayed. Thus, by 1690 Pennsylvania was not only well established on English, Dutch, French, and Italian maps, but had assumed a prominent place.

Pennsylvania Cartography in the 1690s.

There are few maps of Pennsylvania itself from the 1690's into the 1730's. No mapmaker rose to fill the gap from Thomas Holme to Lewis Evans and Benjamin Eastburn; however the state continued to appear on European maps. This discussion of maps from the 1690s will be limited to a few regional maps of Pennsylvania; but first, a diversion into Sweden.

The Swede Peter Lindstrom traveled to the new colonies in the 1650s, and sometime after 1655 made a map titled Nova Svecia, anno 1654 och 1655, Ardenna Novae Sveciae Carta Med, dess Riviers och Landz situation ock, Beskaffenhet Aftagen ock till Carts, ford af P. Lindstrom. In 1759, Israel Acrelius published a book on the Swedish colonies and made the following comments on the Lindstrom map: "Said Engineer Lindstrom's description of New Sweden, which was placed in the Royal Archives, was accompanied by a map of all the places known upon the Swede's river. The map begins at the mouth and extends up to the falls, upon both sides of the river. (Here Acrelius gives a long list of every place name on the map.) The aforesaid map was of the length of four ells, and two ells in breadth, and until the year 1696, when His Royal Majesty King Charles XI renewed the Swedish mission in America, was hung up in the Royal Council Chamber in the castle at Stockholm. Then the King directed that this map should be copied off in smaller form and engraved on copper, whereby it was preserved from the destruction which overtook the castle in Stockholm by the lamentable fire of the year 1697. A copy of this is found in Th. Camp. Holm's Description of New Sweden."[30]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the ell varied in length from country to country with the English ell being 45 inches and the Flemish 27 inches. In any case, the original map was apparently quite large and no longer exists. Lindstrom at his death in 1691 left in manuscript a record of his experiences in America titled Geographia Americae, which is now in the Riksarkivet, Stockholm.This manuscript contains three maps showing the Pennsylvania region, though the name is not used on any of them. These maps were prepared before 1691, but exactly when is hard to say. As they do not include Pennsylvania, they probably were prepared before 1681. However, Lindstrom's intent was to describe Swedish settlement, so he would have made maps that showed things as they were circa 1655 when he visited America. In the preface to his translation of Lindstrom, Johnson provides a biography and says that the manuscript was probably prepared after 1683, when Lindstrom entered a long illness that lasted up to his death in 1691.[31]

One Lindstrom map has north at the bottom, depicts only the Delaware River, and names many of the Swedish and Dutch settlements along its banks. A translation of Martin Luther's Catechism (title page left) published in 1696 contains a version of this map titled Nova Svecia, which is likely the 1696 engraving mentioned by Acrelius. [32] In 1702 Thomas Campanius Holm retitled the map Nova Svecia hodie dicta Pensylvania for his book Kort Beskrifning om Provincien nya Swerige, retaining the rest of the Lindstrom imprint on the bottom.[33] Holm's version resembles the manuscript map left by Lindstrom but is not exactly the same.

The second Lindstrom manuscript map is titled Nova Suecia:Cller The Smenska Revier in India Occidentalis. A facsimile of this map appears in the translation of Acrelius (from which the quote above was taken) titled A History of New Sweden published by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1874. This map has north at the right and is another version of the first map of the Delaware River. Its town and landmark names are similar. The third map is titled Wirginia, Nova Suecia, Nova Battavia, Nova Anglia, and shows the northeast coast. It too has north at the right. Lindstrom also prepared a map of Fort Christina (present day Wilmington), but this map does not include anything of Pennsylvania.

In 1690 John Seller published A New System of Geography, which contains the map Pensilvania . This map shows the Delaware and Susquehanna River valleys; Philadelphia and Chester are named, also a place called Chichester and New Castle Town. The Susquehanna Indian fort marked 'Sasquahang' appears. The first edition of Seller's Geography appeared in 1685 and did not include this map or any regional maps, although it had one of North America naming Pennsylvania. A short description of Pennsylvania, first appearing in the 1685 edition, says the following: 'It is a place not yet well Planted, but may be in time, the Soil and Air being fit for the Nature of an Englishman: Granted by Patent from his late Majesty King, Charles the Second, unto William Penn Esq; and his Heirs forever, and therefore called Pensilvania.' [34] This geography book was an updated version of the Atlas Minimus Seller had published in 1679, which bore the subtitle 'A Book of Geography.' This 1690 map was the last one prepared specifically for Pennsylvania until the 1730s. The map of New Jersey naming Pennsylvania that first appeared in the 1682 Atlas Maritimus is also in this 1690 geography.

The French also had a 'Pilot', Le Neptune françois, ou, Atlas nouveau des cartes marines, appearing in various editions into the 1700s. The 1693 and later editions contained Carte Particuliere de Virginie, Maryland, Pennsilvanie, le Nouvelle Iarsey Orient it Occidentale, by Nicolas Sanson, Amsterdam : Chez P. Mortier. This nautical chart with depths shown by soundings covers the coasts of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and the waterways of eastern Pennsylvania. It is oriented with north to right.[35] Another chart by Sanson dated 1695 is Carte Nouvelle de L'Amerique Angloise contenant la Virginie, Mary-Land, Caroline, Pensylvania Nouvelle Iorck, N:Iarsey N:France, et le terres Nouvellement..., published in Amsterdam by Pierre Mortier. It also appeared in additions of the Neptune Francois and other Sanson atlases. This map shows eastern North America from Hudson Bay to Florida. Pennsylvania is colored to include Maryland, Delaware and half of New York; the state should be so lucky. The Mississippi River is called 'R. Mitchisipi ou Rio Grande." An inset shows Boston Harbor. The mapmaker may have tried to use a different projection, which gives this map a weird look. [36]

A 1695 map titled A New Map of the English Empire in America. viz. Virginia, Maryland, Carolina, New York, New Iarsey, New England Pennsylvania Newfoundland New France &C. by Rob: Morden, I. Harris sculp, was sold by Robt. Morden and Christopher Brown. There is also a 1706 version of this map and a 1719 version from John Senex.[37] The map shows the east coast from Newfoundland to Florida. Pennsylvania is indicated although boundaries are not shown. Philadelphia is named twice, once for the county and once for the city. There is an inset map of the North Atlantic.

A map by Louis Hennepin, Carte d'un Tres Grand Pais Nouvellement Decouvert dans L'Amerique Septentrionale entre le Nouveau Mexique it la Mer Glaciale avec le Cours du Grand Flwuve Meschasipi appears in various editions of Hennepin's voyages published from 1697 to 1711. Despite its title, this map shows only the eastern United States (and southern Canada). There are English, French, German, and Spanish versions.[38] It was made to show the Great Lakes and the course of the Mississippi and is the progenitor of the Mississippi River maps later made by Guillaume de Lisle and Robert de Vaugondy.

Though William Penn was the most important publicist for Pennsylvania with the many versions of his promotional pamphlets, he was not the only one. In 1698 Gabriel Thomas published An Historical and Geographical Account of the Province and Country of Pennsylvania and of West-New-Jersey in America, which contained a map by Phillip Lea titled Pennsylvania and West Jersey . There were a couple other accounts of Pennsylvania written as well. In 1685 had appeared Good Order Established in Pennsilvania & New-Jersey in America, by Thomas Budd and printed by Philadelphia's first printer, William Bradford. In 1692, Bradford also printed A Short Description of Pennsylvania by Richard Frame. These accounts did not contain maps.

Certain names have recurred throughout this discussion of early Pennsylvania maps: Seller, Thornton, Holme, and so forth. In the late seventeenth century, a significant expansion of English mapmaking occurred and the founding of Pennsylvania took place right in the midst of this. It is, in fact, rather strange there are not more maps where Pennsylvania is the dominant subject. Perhaps there were few Quaker mapmakers. At the beginning of the eighteenth century Herman Moll, a native of Germany, became the most prolific English mapmaker. He produced several well-known maps of the colonies, but none, alas, of Pennsylvania itself. The colonials Benjamin Eastburn and Lewis Evans took the next steps in Pennsylvania mapmaking in the late 1730s, but that is another story.

[1] The map is discussed in Black, Jeannette D., The Blathwayt Atlas: Volume I The Maps (1970), Volume II Commentary (1975), Brown University Press, Providence, Map #15; and in Ford, Worthington C., 'The First Separate Map of Pennsylvania,' Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, November, 1923, pp. 172-183. The map is also reproduced in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 1924; in Mercator Society Publication Number One, English Mapping of America 1675-1715, The New York Public Library 1986; in Soderlund, Jean R. (Ed.), Dunn, R. S. & M. M. (Gen. Eds.), William Penn and the founding of Pennsylvania 1680-1684: A Documentary History, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1983. The circumstances surrounding its preparation are discussed in Placing Pennsylvania on the Map: The First Steps, included on this website.

[2] Burden, Philip, The Mapping of North America, A List of Printed Maps 1511-1670, Raleigh Publications, England 1996. The maps in order of mention are #294, #324, #396, #404, #397, and #318. A 1682 version of the Blome map is reproduced in Mercator Society Publication Number One, English Mapping of America 1675-1715, The New York Public Library 1986. It does not show Pennsylvania. The image of the 1656 map is from the National Archives of Canada.

[3] The 1680 version of the Berry map is mentioned in the Mercator Society Publication Number One, Map titled William Berry 1680; in McCorkle, Barbara, New England in Early Printed Maps 1531 to 1800, The John Carter Brown Library, Providence 2001, Map #680.1; and in Stevens, Henry & Tree, Roland, Comparative Cartography, chapter 2 in Tooley, R. V. (Ed.) The Mapping of America, Holland Press, London 1985, Map #57. However, all of the copies seen by this author have been the later version lacking a date and showing Pennsylvania. (Note added 10/2006: There appear to be three states of this map; the original dated 1680, a second state with Pennsylvania added and retaining the 1680 date, a third state with the date removed.)

[4] This comment comes from Mercator Society Publication One, Map titled William Berry 1680, written by McCorkle.

[5] The New York Public Library lists Berry's atlas in its catalog dated 1680-1689, which apparently covers the dating of the maps included. A copy of this atlas in the Library of Congress is listed as item 3442 in Phillips, P. L., A List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress, G. P. O. 1909; and dated 1680-1689. The image of the map shown here is from the National Archives of Canada.

[6] Seller, John, Atlas Maritimus, or a Sea Atlas, describing the Sea-Coasts in most of the known parts of the World, printed by A. Godbid and J. Playford, for John Seller, and to be sold by him at his house at the Hermitage at Wapping, and at his Shop on the West-Side the Royal Exchange, London 1682. The map images here come from a later 1690 Seller geography which has exactly the same maps.

[7] Shirley, Rodney, The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps 1472-1700, Holland Press, London 1983. The Thornton world map with Pennsylvania is #521, the Morden & Berry map is #472, and the Wright map is #221. The Thornton world map is also Map #1 in Black, Vol. I.

[8] Pritchard, Margaret B. & Taliaferro, Henry G., Degrees of Latitude, Mapping Colonial America, Henry N. Abrams, Inc., New York 2002, page 406-407.

[9] Crediting Holme as the maker of the 1681 Pennsylvania map appears, for example, in the Mercator Society Publication One, 1681 Pennsylvania map description, written by Sarah Tyacke of the British Library.

[10] Ford, Worthington C., 'The First Separate Map of Pennsylvania,' Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, November, 1923, pp. 172-183. Ford discusses this point and concludes Holme could not have made the map. A biography of Holme appears in Hough, Oliver, 'Captain Thomas Holme, Surveyor General of Pennsylvania and Provincial Councillor,' Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 19,20 (1895,1896) pp. 413-427,248-256.

[11] Soderlund, Jean R. (Ed.), Dunn, R. S. & M. M. (Gen. Eds.), William Penn and the founding of Pennsylvania 1680-1684: A Documentary History, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1983, Document #76 Letter to the Free Society of Traders, August 16 1683. This is the complete text with a reproduction of the Philadelphia map.

[12] Kane, Harriet F., 'Notes on Early Pennsylvania Promotion Literature,' Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 63 (1939) pp. 144-167, pp. 167-168.

[13] The map is listed in Phillips, P. L., A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress, Washington, G. P. O. 1901, page 698.

[14] The map is listed on page 563 of Phillips and the southern half is reproduced in Hanna, Charles A., The Wilderness Trail; or, the ventures and adventures of the Pennsylvania traders on the Allegheny Path, with some new annals of the old West, and the records of some strong men and some bad ones G. P. Putnam Sons, New York 1911,opposite page 92.

[15] This manuscript map is reproduced in Brown, Lloyd, Early Maps of the Ohio Valley, University of Pittsburgh Press 1959, Map #6. It is held by the Library of Congress, from which the image shown comes.

[16] McCorkle, Map #679.1; Stevens & Tree, Map #19.

[17] McCorkle, Map #680.4; Stevens & Tree, Map #35.

[18] This map appears on the Library of Congress Internet site dated 1685. Some sources date it circa 1690.

[19] Campbell, Tony, The Jansson-Visscher Maps of New England, chapter 8 in Tooley, R. V. (Ed.) The Mapping of America, Holland Press, London 1985, page 285-286.

[20] McCorkle, Map #685.1.

[21] The Browne map is #86 in Stevens and Tree and listed on page 671 in Phillips. It is reproduced on page 21 of Papenfuse, E. C. & Coale III, J. M., The Hammond-Harwood House Atlas of Historical Maps of Maryland, 1608-1908, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1982, who also illustrate the title cartouche from all three versions. The 1656 Sanson map is #318 in Burden.

[22] Soderlund, Document #76 Letter to the Free Society of Traders. This is the complete text with a reproduction of the Philadelphia map.

[23] Klinefelter, Walter, 'Surveyor General Thomas Holme's Map of the Improved Part of the Province of Pennsylvania,' Winterthur Portfolio, vol. 6 (1970) pp. 41-74. This is the most detailed discussion of the Holme map, though it has been described in many other articles and books. The map appeared in several versions into the eighteenth century.

[24] The map is listed in Dunlap, A. R., A Checklist of Seventeenth-Century Maps Relating to Delaware, Delaware Notes 18 (1945), pp. 63-76. Some of the dates given by Dunlap differ from more recent references like Burden and McCorkle. The map also appears in the Library of Congress Internet catalog. A copy of the 1688 French edition of the book and map is in the Darlington Memorial Library, Pittsburgh.

[25] McCorkle, Map #688.1.

[26] Brown, Map #5.

[27] McCorkle, Map #689.2. The image is from the National Archives of Canada.

[28] Verner, Coolie, A Carto-Bibliographical Study of The English Pilot The Fourth Book with special reference to the charts of Virginia, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville 1960. This short monograph includes some information on John Seller, John Thornton, William Fisher and others involved in the publishing of The English Pilot and the Atlas Maritimus. Verner Lists 37 editions of The Fourth Book, which covered American waters, published from 1689 to 1794. Many of the same maps appeared in the Atlas Maritimus.

[29] McCorkle, Map #689.8.

[30] Acrelius, Israel, A History of New Sweden, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania 1874. This is a translation of Acrelius' book, originally titled Beskrifning om de swenska församlingars forna och närwarande tilstånd, printed (in Swedish) by Harberg & Hasselberg, Stockholm 1759.

[31] Lindestrom, Peter Martensson, Geographia Americae, with an account of the Delaware Indians, based on surveys and notes made in 1654-1656, translated by Amandus Johnson, The Swedish Historical Society, Philadelphia 1925. Lindestrom left this account in manuscript when he died in 1691, and an English edition was translated and published in 1925 by Johnson. It contains reproductions of the maps.

[32] Luther, Martin, Lutheri Catechismus : °ofwersatt på American-Virginiske språket, with commentary by John Campanius Holm, Stockholm : Tryckt vthi thet af Kongl. Maytt. privileg. Burchardi tryckeri af J.J. Genath f., 1696. This rare book was apparently prepared earlier, circa 1650, by John Campanius Holm, but not published until 1696 by his grandson Thomas. It is a translation of the catechism into the Delaware Indian language together with a glossary of Indian words, and contains the first printed version of the Lindstrom map.

[33] Holm, Thomas Campanius, Kort Beskrifning om Provincien nya Swerige (A Short Description of the Province of New Sweden), Stockholm, S. Wankijfsankia 1702; reprinted in English translation in 1834. This book contains the second printed version of the Lindstrom map retitled to name Pennsylvania, although not all surviving copies contain the map.

[34] Seller, John, A New System of Geography, London 1690; also in the 1685 edition indicating it was published late in the year as King Charles II died early in 1685.

[35] The map is listed in Dunlap dated circa 1700. Later versions are sometimes attributed to A. Jaillot. It is Map #200J5 in the Maryland State Archives.

[36] McCorkle, Map #695.7.

[37] McCorkle, Map #695.3

[38] McCorkle, Map #697.3, Map #698.3, Map #698.4, Map #699.2, Map #699.3, Map #704.3.

Copyright 2003 by Harold Cramer. All rights reserved.


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