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Pennsylvania in Old Geography Books 1850-1900

1851 Smith's Geography. Geography on the Productive System... accompanied by a large and valuable atlas. By Roswell C. Smith, New York: Published by Cady & Burgess, 60 John Street. 1851. The atlas is shown below. This book has 312 pages with numerous illustrations.There is a question section in front, with Pennsylvania covered in the Middle States section on pages 30-31 , 32. A fuller description of the state is further back on pages:127 , 128-129, 130 . An advertisement indicates the first edition appeared in 1835 with a revision in 1840, and apparently little or no change in subsequent printings. The atlas had engraved maps and was printed in far fewer copies. Printed in letterpress relief with illustrations printed from stereotypes of wood engravings. Size: 6.5 x 4.25 inches.
(1850) Smith's Atlas. Designed to Accompany the Geography. By R.C. Smith A.M. New-York, Cady & Burgess, 60 John Street. Entered according to Act of congress in the year 1839 by Daniel Burgess..., Revised Edition, with Census of 1850. Most of the maps are dated 1847. This is a 38 page atlas with only maps, most with blank verso, and was made to go with Smith's geography above. It contains the following maps: World, North America, Map of the United States and Canada, 10 numbered United States regional maps with the one for Pennsylvania shown below, Mexico and Central America, West Indies, South America, Europe, British Isles, Central Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceanica. Some of these maps have small inset maps. All the maps are engraved. Size: 11.75 x 9.5 inches.
MAP NO. 3. UNITED STATES. This is the third in the series of ten regional maps in Smith's atlas and shows the Middle Atlantic states. This map, like most in the atlas, is copyrighted to 1847 and has the 1850 census population overprinted on each state. The population for Pennsylvania is 2,312,000. Rail lines along with canals are shown and each county seat named. Longitude from Washington at bottom, from Greenwich at top, with blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 50 miles. Size: 10.5 x 8.5 inches.
1853 Smithís First Book in Geography. An introductory geography, designed for children. Illustrated with one hundred and twenty-six engravings, and twenty maps. Eighteenth edition, revised. By Roswell C. Smith. New York: Published by Daniel Burgess & Co., 1853. The copyright date is 1846, so possibly multiple editions came out each year, often the case with small printing runs of the time. A 176 page textbook with numerous woodcut illustrations and maps. There is a short description of Pennsylvania and other mid-Atlantic states on pages 78-79, along with a tiny map of Philadelphia. The other states and countries have similar entries. Unlike the Smith geography above, this one has maps like the one below. The cover appears lithographed, while the text is printed in relief probably from stereotype plates. Size: 6.5 x 5.25 inches.
MAP OF THE MIDDLE STATES. This map appears on page 74 of the above book and shows the Middle Atlantic states. This full page map has 'Butler & Roberts' in small type at the bottom; suggesting the plate was prepared by a different outfit, or more likely they were responsible for the map design. It appears to be printed in relief from a wax engraving or stereotype plate and the map has text on the verso; so this plate was similar to others used. Longitude from Washington at bottom and from Greenwich at top. Scale: 1 inch ~ 100 miles. Size: 5 x 4 inches.
1855 Parley's New Geography is the cover title for this book, inside it is called Peter Parley's Geography for Beginners. With eighteen maps and one hundred and fifty engravings. New York: Sheldon, Lamport & Blakeman, 115 Nassau-Street. 1855. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1844, by S.G. Goodrich. Peter Parley is the nom de plume of Goodrich or perhaps his hired anonymous writer. As the dates indicate, this is a later printing of a ten year old book intended for young students. Pennsylvania is described in Lesson XXXII...The Middle States on pages 59 , 60-61. Two of the maps are described below. The illustrations were probably originally wood engravings. Text and illustrations printed in relief probably from wax engraving plates. Size: 6 x 5 inches.
MAP OF THE MIDDLE STATES. This anonymous map is on page 58 of Parley's geography, and a map of the eastern United States is on page 46 . Both were probably printed from wax engraving plates. The hand coloring appears done by the printer and not idle pupils. The middle states are New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Quite a few towns are named on this simple map. Longitude from Washington at bottom, from Greenwich at top, with text on the verso. Scale: 1 inch = 135 miles. Size: 4.25 x 3.5 inches.
1855 Cornell's Intermediate Geography: forming part Second of a systematic series of school geographies. Designed for pupils who have completed a Primary or Elementary course of instruction in geography. By S.S. Cornell. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 346 & 348 Broadway. 1855. This is an 84 page book with numerous black & white illustrations and several hand colored maps The United States and world maps are double page, the regional and continental maps are single page, and there are a few partial page maps. The printing process is electrotype or wax engraving for text, maps, and illustrations. Some of the illustrations were probably prepared from wood engravings. Sarah Sophie Cornell was a prominant geography textbook author and Appleton a very well known publishing house. Pennsylvania is included in a map on page 27 shown below and described on pages 34-35 . Size: 11 x 9 inches.
NEW ENGLAND AND MIDDLE STATES. J. Dower, Sc. This map is printed by relief wax engraving and hand colored. Delaware is included but not all of Maryland. It is the only regional United States map included in Cornell's geography. Only a few towns are named and only the major river systems shown. The mountains are cursorily indicated by hatching. Longitude from Washington at bottom, from Greenwich at top, text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 75 miles. Size: 8 x 10 inches.
1856 Colton & Fitch's Modern School Geography. Illustrated by forty maps, and numerous engravings. By George W. Fitch. Maps on a new and uniform system of scales, constructed expressly for this work, by George Woolworth Colton. New York: J.H. Colton and Company, No. 172 William Street. 1856. This is probably a first edition as the copyright is 1855. George was the son of J.H., and Colton is (i.e. was) one of the best known map making firms in the country. This text has 125 pages with about 40 hand colored maps and many illustrations. The Pennsylvania description is part of that for the Middle States on pages 34-35 , 37. "The maps are constructed on a uniform system of scales. By this means the learner may, as he passes from one page to another, perceive the relative magnitude of states and countries." Text, illustrations, and maps all appear printed in relief, probably from wax engraving plates. Size: 9.5 x 8 inches.
NEW YORK NEW JERSEY PENNSYLVANIA DELAWARE & MARYLAND. This partial page map appears on page 34 of Colton & Fitch, and there is a partial page map of Philadelphia on page 37 (see the complete pages above). The map is hand colored and quite a few towns are located for so small a map. Likely printed from a wax engraving. Scale: 1 inch = 115 miles. Size: 5.5 x 4.5 inches.
1856 Outlines of Physical Geography. By George W. Fitch. Illustrated by six maps and numerous engravings. Fifth Large Edition. New York: J. H. Colton and Company 172 William Street. 1856. Despite the fifth edition, the first edition appeared in 1855 according to the copyright note. This is another text by Fitch and is included here because it vies with the Warren book, described under 1859 below but with a first edition in 1855, as the earliest school text seen on 'Physical Geography.' Fitch claims that distinction for himself in the preface, dropping some heavy names like Maury, Bache, and Colton. The book has 225 pages and, as might be expected, no specific section on Pennsylania. The closest approach can be seen on pages 76-77, 78-79, with a discussion of rivers. The general arrangement can be illustrated by a couple pages from the table of contents. Text, illustrations, and maps all printed from stereotype plates. A note reads New York Stereotype Association, 201 William Street. Size: 8 x 5 inches.
MAP OF THE WORLD ILLUSTRATING THE PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF METEOROLOGY. The six maps in the Fitch book all look like this one, double page with each over printed to illustrate a different feature, here the weather. Others illustrate land forms, ocean currents, flora and fauna, etc. Printed from a stereotype, probably originally a wax engraving. Size: 7 x 8 inches.
1857 Cornell's High School Geography, forming part third of a systematic series of school geographies, comprising a description of The World...embellished by numerous engravings, and accompanied by a large and complete atlas..., by S.S. Cornell. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 346 & 348 Broadway. M.DCCC.LVII. This is a 406 page text with numerous illustrations throughout. The accompanying atlas is shown below. Pennsylvania is described on pages: 71 , 72-73, 74-75 . This is a throwback to the older type of geography in a sexto volume with no maps; though it may be the first edition. Printed in letterpress relief with relief illustrations probably from wood engraving stereotypes. Size: 7.5 x 5.25 inches.
(1860) Cornell's Companion Atlas to Cornell's High School Geography, by S.S. Cornell, published by D. Appleton & Co., New York 1860. This particular copy is dated slightly later than the accompanying geography above; but it has an 1856 copyright date. There are 46 pages with the 26 maps listed on the title page, with two regional maps of Pennsylvania, described below, and a page of city maps including Philadelphia. The maps are dated in the 1850s. This atlas was printed using lithography. Size: 14 x 12 inches.
THE NORTHERN, OR MIDDLE STATES designed to accompany Cornell's High School Geography. Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1855 by S.S. Cornell. New York: D. Appleton & Co. This map illustrates New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. A few towns and the major rivers are shown. This is a hand colored lithograph, with another map on the verso; longitude from Washington at bottom, west from Greenwich at top. Scale: 1 inch = 47 miles. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
EASTERN DIVISION OF THE UNITED STATES designed to accompany Cornell's High School Geography. Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1856 by S.S. Cornell. New York: D. Appleton & Co. This map illustrates Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. It is more detailed than the one above, showing more towns and railroad lines. This is a hand colored lithograph, with another map on the verso; longitude from Washington at bottom, west from Greenwich at top. Scale: 1 inch = 44 miles. Size: 10 x 12.5 inches.
1857 The First Book of History, Combined with Geography; containing the History and Geography of the Western Hemisphere. For the use of schools. By the author of Peter Parley's Tales. Illustrated by engravings and colored maps. Revised and improved edition, with important additions. Boston: Hickling, Swan & Brewer. 1857. This revised edition first appeared in 1852 and comments on the publishing history are given in the preface. Samuel G. Goodrich was the author of Peter Parley's Tales, or at least the rights owner, but his name appears nowhere in this volume, though he was still alive in 1857. This is a good marketing idea, buy this book and teach two subjects at once, and a good example of Goodrich's business acumen. In a way, he anticipates the modern program of "social studies." The book has 224 pages and the combined history-geography program is laid out in the preface and Table of Contents on the following pages: 4-5 , 6-7, 8-9 , 10. The Pennsylvania description appears on pages 70-71 , 72-73, 74 ; and gives the general scheme for combining the subjects. The maps are described below. The text and wood engraving illustrations are printed in relief probably from stereotype plates. The maps are copper plate engravings tipped in during binding. Size: 7.25 x 5.5 inches.
NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, DELAWARE & MARYLAND. G.W. Boynton. This map is between pages 68-69 in the above book and accompanies the text devoted to these states. It is an engraving with blank verso tipped in during binding. Longitude from Washington at top, from Greenwich at bottom. Scale: 1 inch = 65 miles. Size: 4.5 x 6.25 inches.
MIDDLE STATES. G.W. Boynton. The states here are New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. The map is included between pages 78-79 of the above book. It accompanies a very short chapter of half a page treating the middle states as one entity and seems superfluous, given previous maps. Like the map above which it resembles, it is an engraving tipped in during binding. Longitude from Washington at top, from Greenwich at bottom. Scale: 1 inch = 95 miles. Size: 6.25 x 4.5 inches.
1859 Warren's Physical Geography, by D. M. Warren, Revised Editon, Philadelphia: H. Cowperthwaite & Co. 1859. This is the title on the cover which is barely legible, the title page has a much more exotic and comprehensive title. This 92 page book introduces a particular type of geography, a 'physical' as opposed to a 'political' geography. The first edition appeared around 1855, as the preface makes clear, and this is believed to be the earliest such book. The Table of Contents gives an indication of what a physical geography was about: Geology, Hydrography, Meteorology , land forms, topography; not much about people or their doings. People are part of "Organic Life." As such, the book has no map of Pennsylvania, a political entity: however there is a map of the United States, described below. As the title page says, the book was printed from electrotype, or wax engraving, plates; although the black & white illustrations may have begun as wood engravings, and the maps as copper plate engravings. Size: 11.5 x 10 inches.
PHYSICAL MAP OF THE UNITED STATES SHOWING ITS MOUNTAINS, PLAINS, RIVERS, ISOTHERMAL LINES, ETC. This anonymous map appears at the end of Warren's book, and there is a neat elevation scale of mountains at the bottom. Originally hand colored to show physical features, the coloring is very much faded on this copy. Scale: 1 inch = 490 miles. Size: 8 x 10.5 inches.
1861 Camp's Geography Embracing the Key to Mitchell's Series of Outline Maps, by David N. Camp, Hartford: Published by O.D. Case and Company. Chicago: George Sherwood. 1861. The inside copyright gives the dates 1857,1858. This is a 208 page textbook with maps and illustrations. The maps are reduced copies of wall maps made by S. A. Mitchell for school instruction; they use numbers and letters to identify places that children are then to name. There is a United States map and continental maps, but no regional maps. Short descriptions of states and countries are given, with Pennsylvania on pages 67, 68. Printed in letterpress relief with stereotype wood engraving illustrations. Size: 9 x 7.5 inches.
NO. 4. This map of the United States appears on pages 48-49. The numbers refer to locations children are to name with the key given on the following pages. It is based on larger wall maps made by S.A. Mitchell for schools, although that is not credited. This map appears to be from a wax engraving plate, though the color is hand applied. Longitude from Greenwich at top, from Washington at bottom. Scale: 1 inch ~ 400 miles. Size: 8 x 12 inches.
1863 McNally's System of Geography is the cover title, not very legible on this copy. On the title page it's An Improved System of Geography. By Francis McNally. Designed for schools, academies and seminaries. Revised and enlarged edition. New York: Published by A.S. Barnes & Burr, 51 & 53 John Street. 1863. Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1855... . Electrotyped by Thomas B. Smith, 82 & 84 Beekman Street. According to the copyright, the first edition was in 1855 and this edition first appeared in 1859. There are 34 full page maps and one double page map (of the United States) in this 110 page textbook. The discussion on Pennsylvania is on page 27 , and immediately follows the map described below. This book is very much built around its maps, a map followed by a page of discussion continues throughout the book exactly like the Pennsylvania example here. Francis was not the co-founder of Rand McNally, that was Andrew, and they are probably not related though this is unconfirmed. The book is printed by electrotype or wax engraving, as the credit in front says. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
NEW JERSEY PENNSYLVANIA DELAWARE AND MARYLAND, Drawn by J. Wells N. Y., Eng. BY George E. Sherman N. Y. This map is a wax engraving, and shows quite a few towns and includes some railroads. An inset of Philadelphia is on the left. Longitude from Washington at top, from Greenwich at bottom; text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 38 miles. Size: 8.25 x 10.5 inches.
1864 A System of Modern Geography comprising a description of the present state of the World..., accompanied by an atlas containing thirty-two maps, drawn and engraved expressly for the work. by S. Augustus Mitchell. Philadelphia: published by E.H. Butler & Co. 1864. The title on the spine is Mitchell's School Geography. This 336 page textbook appears to have been printed in letterpress relief with numerous wood block illustrations, some can be seen on the pages describing Pennsylvania: 129 , 130-131, 132 . There are no maps as the book was to be used with the atlas described below. Size: 6.75 x 4.25 inches.
1864 Mitchell's School Atlas - Revised Edition, published by E.H. Butler & Co., Philadelphia. The bottom of the title page has: "Entered, according to act of Congress, in the year 1852, by S. Augustus Mitchell." This is the most widely used school atlas of the nineteenth century and was intended to be used with Mitchell's geography described above. It contains 44 pages and 32 maps, including United States regional maps (see below). Some pages have more than one map; some pages have blank verso and some do not. There are 10 pages of population data, most from the 1850 census with data from the 1860 census on a single page at the front. The title page contains a Table of Contents. The dating on the maps varies between 1852 and 1864. Either wax engraving or lithographic printing was used, with hand coloring of the maps, and some of the maps may have been transferred from an engraved plate. On the back cover is a list of other books published by Butler. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
No. 11 MAP OF THE MIDDLE STATES AND PART OF THE SOUTHERN, Engraved to Illustrate Mitchell's School and Family Geography. Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1858 by S. Augustus Mitchell. Engraved by J.H. Young. This map appears in the atlas described above. It covers the region from New York to North Carolina; West Virginia appears so this plate was altered after 1858, probably in 1864, and the original use of this general map design dates back to at least 1839. .It appears to be a lithographic print with hand coloring. Blank verso. Scale: 1 inch = 45 miles. Size:17.5 x 10.5 inches.
1864 Morse's School Geography is the cover title; on the title page is A System of Geography, for the Use of Schools. Illustrated with More Than Fifty Cerographic Maps, and Numerous Wood-Cut Engravings. By Sidney E. Morse, A.M. New York: Published by Harper & Brothers, 329 & 331 Pearl Street, Franklin Square.1864. This 72 page book has many partial page hand colored maps and black & white illustrations. While the publication date on the title page is 1864, the textual information reveals updating to only about 1860, since slavery is still a statistical entry on many of the southern states and there is no mention of a war going on. This is one of the best known geography books of the nineteenth century, mostly because it is one of the earliest books to be printed by cerographic (or electrotype or wax engraving) plates. In fact, Morse is considered the American originator of this technique and the preface gives some information about him. The original edition of this book appeared around 1844, and though the plates used for printing were probably recast, little change to the organization or textual content occurred over twenty years, and this very late edition looks much like the first. Size: 12 x 9.5 inches.
PENNSYLVANIA. This anonymous partial page map appears on page 25 of Morse's book and the textual material relating to the state is underneath. This geography is very much organized around its maps, with this page on Pennsylvania furnishing an example. Although the text is identical to earlier versions (except for population), the map is a different plate with changes occurring in the lettering. Scale: 1 inch = 45 miles. Size: 5 x 8 inches.
1865 Introduction to Monteith's Manual of Geography, by James Monteith, Principal of Ward School No. XVII., - New York City. New York: Published by A.S. Barnes & Burr, 51 & 53 John Street. 1865. According to the copyright, the first edition was in 1857. "The National Geographical Series heretofore consisted of three grades of text-books, viz: First Lessons in Geography, the Manual, and McNally's System of Geography... . The space between the First Lessons and the Manual was increased to such an extent as to warrant the use of an intermediate work, as an Introduction to the Manual." This 62 page 'introduction' for young children has several hand colored maps and numerous black & white illustrations. The Pennsylvania map is described below. The text consists of questions and answers; in the back is a Pronouncing Vocabulary of Geographical Names vis: Reading, red'-ing. Pages 32-33 , 34-35, have questions (and answers) on the United States, but more interestingly show some of the illustrations. Many of these are signed and are likely stereotypes of wood engravings, and the entire page was probably printed from a stereotype. Size: 8.5 x 6.75 inches.
MIDDLE STATES. This anonymous map is on page 26 followed by questions on page 27, both shown here. The map is quite simple and hand colored and probably printed from a wax engraving. The middle states are New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Scale: 1 inch = 72 miles. Size: 7.25 x 5 inches.
1865 J. H. Coltonís American School Quarto Geography, comprising the several departments of mathematical, physical, and civil geography; with an atlas of more than one hundred steel plate maps, profiles, and plans, on forty-two large sheets. By G. Woolworth Colton. New York: Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman & Co., Nos. 48 and 50 Walker Street. 1865. Davies & Kent, Electrotypers, etc. This 118 page textbook also has a five page appendix with statistics. The atlas mentioned is the book itself as it contains about forty maps including the one below. Immediately following the map is page 25 with the short description of Pennsylvania; and there are many black & white illustrations throughout such as the small one of coal miners shown. The back cover has a list of other textbooks sold by the publisher which presents a snapshot of what was studied in school then. At 14 x 11.5 inches, this is one of the larger nineteenth century geographies seen. Printed from wax engraving or electrotype plates, the illustrations probably were originally woodcuts.
NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA & DELAWARE. Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1860 by J. H. Colton. This full page map is on page 24 of the Colton geography and has insets of New York City and Philadelphia at the bottom. It is similar to the other maps in the book, showing railroads and canals and many town names, including county seats. Hand colored, and printed from a wax engraving. Scale: 1 inch = 57 miles. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
1866 Geography Epitomized, or A Tour Round The World, being a short but comprehensive description of the terraaqueous world. Attempted in verse for the sake of the memory, and principally designed for the use of schools. By John McKeirnan. Mount Pleasant: Hatton & Brady's "Journal" Print and Book Bindery. 1866. This 60 page textbook has no maps or illustrations. As stated, the text is in verse and some, ahem, flavor of the presentation can be gotten from the reference to Pennsylvania on page 58, where apparently the author was born (i.e. in Pennsylvania, not on page 58). The verse is a combination of general subjects, Islands, Rivers, and specific topics such as Cook's Second Voyage Round the Globe to the South of the Three Southern Contiments. The cover appears lithographed, but the text is printed in relief probably from wax engraving or electrotype plates. Size: 7.25 x 4.75 inches.
1868 Guyot's Geographical Series. Elementary Geography, for Primary Classes. New York: Charles Scribner & Company, 654 Broadway. 1868. No author is listed on the title page for this 170 page book, but the title has a reference to Arnold Guyot (1807-1884), a Swiss emigrant who put out several geographies over about twenty years. The preface is signed by Mary Howe Smith and dated 1868, so this is evidently a first edition and she may have been the author. There are several hand colored maps and many black & white illustrations. Pennsylvania is described under the Middle Atlantic states on pages 30 and 31. Printed in relief probably from electrotype plates; with the illustrations originally wood engravings. Size: 8.7 x 7 inches.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. This simple map is on page 32 of the above book and is hand colored. Only a few town names are shown; in Pennsylvania one of them is Mauch Chunk for some reason. Following the map is a page of map study questions. The maps were probably originally wax engravings. Scale: 1 inch ~ 100 miles. Size: 7.75 x 6.25 inches.
1869 A Hand Book of Map Drawing, adapted especially to the maps in Mitchell's New Series of School Geographies. By Peter Keam and John Mickleborough, teachers in the Public Schools of Cincinnati. Published by E.H. Butler & Co. Philadelphia. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869. This small 57 page book has 25 hand colored maps of different parts of the world for the drawing practice of students. "Map-drawing is properly an aid to the study of Geography; and this fact has been constantly kept in view in the preparation of the present system." Some more general textbooks had map drawing exercises as an appendix; this book was intended to accompany those which did not. The Pennsylvania map on page 19 is shown below. There is no text except for a short description of the United States. The text at the front is printed in letterpress relief, however the map pages appear to be lithographs. Size: 8 x 6.5 inches.
NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA & NEW JERSEY. Drawn & Engraved by J.M. Atwood, Philadelphia. This map and the accompanying exercise sheet are pages 18,19 in the above map drawing hand book. The map is hand colored and the pages appear printed by lithography, perhaps transferred from an engraving by Atwood. Scale: 1 inch = 85 miles. Size: 7 x 5.25 inches.
1870 Number One Eclectic Series. Primary Geography. By A. von Steinwehr and D.G. Brinton. American Book Company. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by Wilson, Hinkle & Co. On the bottom of the cover can be seen "Second Hand Rebound by Geo. B. Doan & Co., Chicago." The rebinding of very well used school textbooks was a common thing. This is an 86 page text with about 14 full page color maps and many black & white illustrations. "A pupil who has merely committed the names of countries,...etc. to memory, forgets them, one by one, when he leaves school and enters upon the duties of active life: one whose attention has been called to the great natural features of the globe, ... may forget names, but his knowledge of the groundwork of the science is enduring. The Eclectic Series of Geographies has been prepared with a view to introduce this new system and method into our schools." The use of school texts tended to be regional, and the Eclectic Series from the American Book Company of Cincinnati and Chicago was popular through the midwest. Pennsylvania is described in the Middle States section on pages 37 , 38-39 in this geography for young children. Baron Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich von Steinwehr (1822-1877) was a German army officer who emigrated to the United States and served as a Union officer in the Civil War, he rates a page in Wikipedia. Post-bellum, he authored several geographies and other books, like this one, which included his own maps. Printed in relief with wood engraving stereotypes. Size: 9 x 7.5 inches.
MIDDLE STATES. By A. von Steinwehr. This map appears on page 36 of the Eclectic geography and includes the region from New York to Virginia. There is an inset of New York City. The western tip of Virginia runs off the map. Printed in relief with color from screen lines, probably from wax engraving plates. Scale: 1 inch = 87 miles. Size: 8 x 6.5 inches.
1873 Our World or First Lessons in Geography. By Mary L. Hall. Boston: Published by Ginn Brothers. 1873. Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by Mary Lucy Hall. This text is intended for younger children; Hall's 1877 'Second' book of geography for older children is shown below and the two can be compared. This one has 120 pages with several hand colored maps and numerous black & white illustrations. The first part is organized along 'physical' lines as was often done with geographies for the very young; the table of contents illustrates this. There is no Pennsylvania regional map, and the discussion on 'The Atlantic States' is on pages 106, and 107. Although, the text seems dense and the printing small for very young children. The text is printed in relief from stereotype plates. The illustrations were originally wood engravings and some of them are signed. Size: 8.5 x 7 inches.
MAP OF THE UNITED STATES. This anonymous and simple map appears on pages 100-101 of Hall's book. It is hand colored and printed from a wax engraving. There are similar maps of the continents. The map is not tipped, but bound into the book, making the area along the spine hard to see. Text on the verso. Size: 7 x 11 inches.
1876 Cornell's First Steps in Geography, by S.S. Cornell, New Edition. New York: D. Appleton & Company. Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by S.S. Cornell. Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by D. Appleton & Co. This geography for toddlers, originally published in 1858, can be compared to the Cornell 1855 Intermediate and 1857 High School geographies above to see how one author changed material among grade levels. This small 70 page book has 18 hand colored maps and numerous black & white illustrations. The Pennsylvania description follows a map on page 48 described below: 49 , 50-51. The book appears printed in relief probably from wax engraving plates. The illustrations were likely transferred from other media; one is initialed A.R.W., probably Alfred R. Waud, a noted illustrator. After 1880 Appleton dropped the Cornell geographies and brought out a new line. Size: 6.75 x 5.5 inches.
MIDDLE STATES. This simple anonymous map from Cornell's geography was probably printed from a wax engraving. Only a few towns are named. The other maps are of the world and continents, and several of the United States like this one. Scale: 1 inch = 100 miles. Size: 5.75 x 4.5 inches.
1876 A Geography of Pennsylvania, prepared for the Pennsylvania Editions of Warren's Common School Geography and Warren's Brief Course in Geography, Cowperthwaite & Co Philadelphia 1876. This is a 16 page booklet with a brown paper cover and contains the double page Pennsylvania hand colored map shown below. It appears printed in letterpress relief with many black & white illustrations, probably from wood block engravings, scattered throughout the text pages: 3 , 4, 5 , 6, 7 , 8, 9 , 10, 11 , 12, 13 . This is a separate publication of what was an addendum to a geography book which was usually bound into the book and this is the earliest such addendum seen for Pennsylvania. (See the 1890 Warren book below.) These rarely survive because they are flimsy and this is one of the few seen. Size: 12 x 9.5 inches.
PENNSYLVANIA, Drawn and Engraved by W. H. Gamble, Philadelphia. This map from the above book is undated, Lackawanna County is not shown so the map was prepared before 1878 and probably in 1875 or 1876. It appears to be an engraving, or possibly an engraving transferred for lithographic printing. Gamble's name appears on many mid-century maps of this type. This is a detailed map with many town names, detailed river systems, and an attempt to show the intricate mountain ridge system by hatching. The map precedes page 16, which is a set of questions on it. Longitude from Washington at bottom, from Greenwich at top, text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 28 miles. Size: 11 x 18 inches.
1876 Comprehensive Geography Number One First Lessons in Geography. New York: P. O'Shea, Publisher. Copyright 1876 by P. O'Shea. Electrotyped by Smith & McDougal. No author is identified for this 72 page textbook for young children. It contains both color maps and black and white illustrations. The Middle States description with a map is on pages 40-41, 42-43. This book appears to be prepared for catholic schools, but religion does not intrude on the presentation. As noted, it is printed from electrotype plates, and the illustrations were probably originally wood engravings. Size: 7 x 5.25 inches.
UNITED STATES. This map appears on pages 30-31 of the above geography. It is marked Russell & Struthers, N.Y., as are all the maps in the book. Longitude from Washington at top, from Greenwich at bottom, text on verso. Printed color with no scale. Size: 5 x 8.75 inches.
1877 Harper's Introductory Geography with maps and illustrations prepared expressly for this work by eminant American artists. New York Harper & Brothers 1877. The book has no identified author and this appears to be a first edition. There are twelve full page maps and two double page maps (United States and World), all copyright 1877 by Harper & Brothers. The book has 112 pages total and many black & white illustrations, most signed or initialed by the artist and they may have begun as wood engravings. The entire book is printed in relief probably from wax engraving plates. Pennsylvania is described along with the other Middle Atlantic states on pages 45, 46-47 , 48-49, 50 .Size: 9 x 7.5 inches.
MAP OF THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. Copyright 1877 by Harper & Brothers. This map appears on page 44 of Harper's geography. The middle states here are New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. This simple map has printed color and was probably printed from a wax engraving plate. A few towns are indicated and some effort made to show the mountains by hachures. Scale: 1 inch = 65 miles. Size: 8 x 6 inches.
1877 Our World No. 2 or Second Series of Lessons in Geography, by Mary L. Hall. Boston: Published by Ginn Brothers. University Press: Welch, Bigelow & Co., Cambridge. The copyright is 1872 which was likely the first edition date. "Of making books there is no end, and it seems almost presumptuous in these days to offer a new school-book." In any case, a Hints to Teachers starts this 176 page book off which combines both a 'physical' and 'political' geography with color maps and many black & white illustrations. The first 25 pages are the physical geography and the remainder the political. The Pennsylvania description is on pages 59, 60 . Most of the text is printed in relief, as are the illustrations; however, some pages appear lithographed. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
THE MIDDLE STATES, E.A.H. Allen del. G.W. Boyton. This full page map appears on page 64 of the Hall geography above. Virginia and West Virginia are included as Middle States here and there is a small inset of New York City at the top. The color is printed and the map is probably printed from a wax engraving plate, although it looks like a lithograph. Text on the verso. Scale: 1 inch = 65 miles. Size: 11 x 9 inches.
1877 Manual of Geography: A Complete Treatise on Mathmatical, Civil, and Physical Geography. By M.F. Maury, LL.D. University Publishing Company, New York and Baltimore. 1877. This is a later printing as the copyright and preface are dated 1870 in this 160 page text. It contains twenty-five maps and numerous black & white illustrations. Pennsylvania is covered under the Middle States description on pages 42-43, and 44. This is a fairly conventional geography for the time, though there is more material on landforms and ocean winds and currents, as might be expected from Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873). He was famous in his lifetime and considered one of the founders of modern oceanography. As he died in 1873, this geography would be one of the last he saw published, though his name continued to be used on later books, see 1912. Printed in relief. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
MIDDLE STATES (with Virginia and West Virginia). This full page map appears on page 45 of the Maury book following the Middle States description; and includes Virginia and West Virginia. It is hand colored and probably printed from a wax engraving plate. A few rail lines are shown and many town names. Text on the verso. Scale: 1 inch = 72 miles. Size: 10.75 x 8.25 inches.
1879 Swinton's Complete Course Geography, Physical, Industrial, and Political. with a Special Geography for each state. By William Swinton. New York and Chicago: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, and Company. 1879. The preface is dated 1875, apparently the first edition, which was then revised in 1876. All authors have a calling: "It will sufficiently illustrate the comprehensive spirit of this manual to say that the author treats Physical and so-called "Political" geography as inseparable, as one subject." This is a 141 page book with two double page maps (United States and Midwest) and twenty-six single page maps, along with numerous black & white illustrations. The maps with Pennsylvania are described below. In addition, at the back of the book is A System of Map-Drawing, by E.A. and A.C. Apgar, copyright 1873 by them. On page 134 it has a Middle Atlantic States map as an illustration in map drawing. Text, maps, and illustrations are printed from wax engraving plates. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
UNITED STATES SECTION I ATLANTIC STATES FROM MAINE TO GEORGIA. Copyright 1875 by Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., New York. Russell & Struthers, N.Y. This wax engraving map appears on page 31 of Swinton, preceded by a Topical Outline. It has an inset of New York City. Longitude from Washington at bottom, from Greenwich at top, accompanied by time scales. Text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 105 miles. Size: 11 x 9 inches with protrusions beyond the boundary.
REFERENCE MAP OF THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES AND PART OF WEST VIRGINIA. Copyright 1875 by Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., New York. This wax engraving map appears on page 38 of Swinton with the Pennsylvania description following on pages 41 and 42 . There is a small black & white map on page 42 showing the anthracite coal fields. Scale: 1 inch = 50 miles. Size: 11 x 8.5 inches with protrusions all the way to the paper edge.
1880 Mitchell's New Primary Geography Pennsylvania Edition: illustrated by twenty color maps and embellished with a hundred engravings. Designed as an introduction to the author's New Intermediate Geography. by S. Augustus Mitchell, Philadelphia: Published by J.H. Butler & Co., 1880. Electrotyped by MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan. Caxton Press, Sherman & Co. Philadelphia. Electrotyping is also known as wax engraving and cerography. According to the copyright, the original edition was in 1877. From the front: "The New Primary Geography has had a sale of over a million copies, and new electrotype plates have become necessary. Advantage has been taken of this necessity to enlarge the type, to renew with fresher subjects a number of illustrations, and to engrave entirely new maps, unsurpassed for clearness and accuracy." This 114 page grade school textbook has an 8 page Pennsylvania supplement added at the back described below. Pennsylvania is also included in the map described below, with text description on pages 38-39 . There are regional maps of the United States and Canada, and continental and world maps; all with printed color. The Illustrations are possibly wood engravings transferred for "electrotype" printing. Some of them have the engraver's name at the bottom. Size: 9 x 7.25 inches.
MAP OF THE MIDDLE STATES and Maryland, Virginia, & West Virginia. This anonymous map from Mitchell's geography, prepared by wax engraving, is on page 36 immediately followed by "Questions on the Map" on page 37 . The middle states are apparently New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware since they are not mentioned separately. A few towns are shown along with a cursory indication of the river and mountain systems. Longitude from Washington, text verso. Scale: 1 inch = 94 miles. Size: 8 x 6 inches.
(1876 ) PENNSYLVANIA, Copyright, 1876, by J.H. Butler & Co. This two page Pennsylvania map appears in the addendum to Mitchell's New Primary Geography described above, following the addendum title page: A Geography of Pennsylvania..., by J.P. Wickersham, LL.D., State Superindent of Public Instruction. Philadelphia: Published by J.H. Butler & Company. Copyright, 1876, by J.H. Butler & Co. Apparently there was nothing wrong with the state superintendent authoring (and profiting) from a book to be used in state schools. Unlike the maps in the geography proper, this one is hand colored. It appears to have been wax engraved, separately printed, and tipped in during binding. Lackawanna County, formed in 1878, is shown so the original plate must have been retouched for the 1880 edition. The state is described on pages 4-5 , 6-7, and 8 . Scale: 1 inch = 30 miles. Size: 8 x 12 inches.
1880 Appletons' Standard Elementary Geography, New York - Cincinnati - Chicago American Book Company From the press of D. Appleton & Company. Copyright by D. Appleton and Company, 1880.This appears to be a first edition; around this time Appleton dropped the Cornell geographies and came out with a whole new line with no identified authors. This 108 page book contains ten single page maps, a couple partial page maps and a double page map of the United States. There are also numerous black & white illustrations. The text on Pennsylvania appears on pages 31, 32 , and 34-35 surrounding the map described below. Essentiallly unchanged editions of this book appeared as late as 1908. The book is printed in relief probably from wax engraving plates. Some of the illustrations are signed and likely started as wood engravings. Size: 9.25 x 7.5 inches.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. This anonymous and simple map appears on page 33 of the above geography. It is printed from a wax engraving plate with printed color. Here Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia are included in the Middle States. Scale: 1 inch = 90 miles. Size: 8 x 6 inches with Virginia extending past the border.
1881 Cram's Illustrated Handbook of Geography, Diamond Edition, Geo. F. Cram Publisher, Chicago. Cram does not seem to have entered the school geography textbook business; and this 203 page book was apparently intended as a kind of textbook for adults, a "condensed manual of political and historical geography. Is it not a fact, that after the early days of childhood are passed, and the school atlas is laid aside, the boundaries of states and countries, the location of important geographical points and even the prominent physical features of the world, soon pass from the mind of our American youth?" Well, this book will remedy all that. It has maps of the world, of continents and select countries, plus illustrations. The discussion is organized around countries, so there is no specific description of Pennsylvania, though the state is mentioned in this physical description of the United States. The illustrations are both partial and full page, such as this lithograph of Plains Indians. The text is printed in relief, some illustrations are tipped in lithographs and others appear printed from wood or wax engravings. Size: 8 x 6 inches.
(United States) This untitled and anonymous two page map appears in the United States section of the Cram book. It is from a wax engraving plate and runs past the neat line at upper right; blank verso and tipped into the book during binding, as were the other maps. Scale: 1 inch = 375 miles. Size: 6.5 x 9.5 inches.
1882 Guyot's New Intermediate Geography Pennsylvania Edition. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 743 and 745 Broadway. Copyright 1875, 1879, 1882 by Charles Scribner's Sons. Arnold Guyot (1807-1884) was born in Switzerland where he taught for several years before coming to America. Although he contributes a preface, dated 1876 for the first edition, he is not listed as author on the title page of this printing. He says this book is a revision of one published in 1867. It has 100 pages with eighteen maps and numerous black & white illustrations, plus a Pennsylvania addendum described below. In the text, the short Pennsylvania description is on page 31. Text, illustrations and maps are all printed in relief from wax engraving plates. Size: 11.75 x 9.75 inches.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. Copyright 1879 by Charles Scribner's Sons. E. Sandoz & J. Krumholz, del. Russell & Struthers, N.Y. This map appears on page 28 of Guyot's geography and appears to be from a wax engraving. Page 29 contains questions on it. It extends from New York to Virginia and there is an inset of the western tip of Virginia. Longitude from Greenwich, text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 60 miles. Size: 10.5 x 8 inches.
(1877) PENNSYLVANIA by A. Guyot. E. Sandoz, del. Russell & Struthers, Eng. Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1876 by Scribner, Armstrong & Co. This two page map from a wax engraving appears on pages 2, 3 of the Pennsylvania addendum in Guyot's geography, which is titled: Geography of Pennsylvania, copyright 1877 by Scribner, Armstrong & Company. The remaining pages are: 1 , 4-5, 6-7 , 8-9, 10-11 . There is an additional simple map on page 4 titled Map Studies. Several nice views are included which may have originated as wood engravings. Longitude from Greenwich at top, and an interesting elevation profile at bottom. Text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 25 miles. Size: 8.25 x 14.5 inches.
1885 Barnesí Complete Geography. Pennsylvania Edition. By James Monteith. Copyright 1885 by James Monteith. A. S. Barnes and Co. New York and Chicago. The Barnes textbooks had the colorful covers shown at left, one of the main reasons for including this one. Although the copyright date on this textbook is 1885, it was printed and bound sometime between 1887 and 1890, as 1880 census data are used and the Pennsylvania map (see below) is dated 1887. There is also a Record of Recent Discoveries and Events page at the front indicating a later date. This text contains about thirty maps, such as those below, and many black & white illustrations. Text, illustrations and maps are printed in relief probably from electrotypes or wax engraving plates. Size: 12.5 x 10.25 inches.
NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA AND NEW JERSEY. Copyright 1885, by James Monteith. This map is page 44 in the Barnes geography and includes insets of the region at top and Long Island at bottom. It has printed color and was probably printed from wax engraving plates. It is followed by a General Questions page. Text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 51 miles. Size: 11 x 8.25 inches.
(1887) PENNSYLVANIA. Copyright 1887, by James Monteith. This map is pages 46b-c of a six page (46a, 46d, 46e, 46f) Pennsylvania insert located between the pages describing the Middle Atlantic states. This is unusual as these state inserts were normally placed at the end of the book. The map has printed color and shows rail lines and canals. Text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 17 miles. Size: 10.5 x 17 inches.
1888 Potter's New Elementary Geography. Designed for Primary and Intermediate Classes. Teacher's Edition. By Miss Eliza H. Morton. Philadelphia: John E. Potter & Company, Nos. 1111 and 1113 Market Street. This textbook has 124 numbered pages but the text actually begins on page 10, apparently the frontispiece pages are counted. As the title indicates, this is a teacher's edition and a 34 page section is inserted at the front that would not have been in the student's copy. Some flavor of the teaching instructions can be gotten from pages ii and vi. The book has a peculiar organization which is topical, not geographical as illustrated by the table of contents, pages one and two. There are maps of the continents and a map of the United States, shown below. However, this book is filled with wonderful wood engraving illustrations, one of the best books for this seen. There is no section on Pennsylvania, but the state is mentioned on page 88; and page 89 contains an illustration on glass making, a major state industry at that time. Text, illustrations and maps are all printed in relief probably from stereotype plates. The illustrations were originally wood engravings and the best part about this book. Size: 10 x 8 inches.
UNITED STATES. W. H. Gamble, Del. This map is on pages 62, 63 of Morton's book and only the eastern half is shown here. It has printed color and was probably originally a wax engraving. Text on verso. Scale: 1 inch = 235 miles. Size: 9 x 14 inches with an inset of New England extending beyond the neat line.
1889 First Lessons in Geography, on the plan of object teaching. Designed for beginners. By James Monteith. American Book Company, New York. This little textbook has 70 pages and 12 maps including the one shown below. There are many illustrations including the one of William Penn on page 41; and the description of Pennsylvania follows the map on pages 39, 40-41. The first edition of this book appeared in 1884 according to the copyright note. By this time, sexto or octavo size geography books like this one were for small children. Text, illustrations and maps are all printed in relief probably from sterotypes. Size: 7 x 5 inches.
MIDDLE STATES. This anonymous and simple little map has printed color and was originally a wax engraving. It appears on page 38 of Monteith's textbook. The middle states are considered to be New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Maryland is included on the southern states map at a smaller scale than here. Text on verso. Scale: 1 inch ~ 100 miles. Size: 6 x 4 inches.
1890 Warren's Brief Course in Geography - Pennsylvania Edition, Philadelphia Cowperthwaite & Co. There is an 1886 copyright at the front, but the back has population tables with data from the 1890 census, so an 1890 date is used here. This book has 96 pages followed by a 16 page color map section and a 16 page Pennsylvania addendum that is identical to the 1876 paperback booklet, A Geography of Pennsylvania, described above. All the pages are printed by the wax engraving process:"The steadily increasing demand for Warren's Brief Course in Geography has occasioned the printing of so many editions that ti has been found necessary to renew the electrotype plates from which the book is printed." The maps scattered through the text, like the one below, have printed color. The maps at the back in the two addendums are hand colored. These addendums were prepared separately, and likely at different times on different presses, and then bound into the book. The Pennsylvania description, such as it is, is on page 29 , Size: 12 x 10 inches.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. This undated and anonymous map appears on page 31 of Warren's geography and has printed color. There are similar regional maps for New England, the South, the Midwest, and the West. This one has an inset at upper left showing Physical Features and Principal Products, but lacks detail overall. From the Preface: "The Maps in the body of the work are designed only for use in schools; therefore none but the leading towns and most important features are given, and nothing is represented on the Maps which is not referred to either in text or question in some part of the book." (Italics original). Scale: 1 inch = 62 miles. Size: 10.75 x 9 inches.
1891 The Geography of Pennsylvania Physical and Descriptive, by Jacques W. Redway. Syracuse N Y, C.W. Bardeen Publisher 1891. This 98 page textbook on the state has no illustrations and three maps that appear as both the front and back endplates. Since the entire text is on Pennsylvania, only the Table of Contents is reproduced here. From the Preface: "The usefulness of this manual depends on the judgment of the teacher. It is a manual of geography and not of 'improved methods' of teaching. Only the essential features of the geography of the State are here printed. Many of the questions following the various chapters are left unanswered in the text. Whether or not the information to which they allude is sought out depends upon the interest which teacher and pupil take in the subject." Clearly Redway was no fan of 'improved methods,' and believed in working his clients. Before each set of questions, Redway includes a paragraph of advice 'To The Teacher.' Lithographic printing appears to be used.
THE COUNTIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. This anonymous map appears as an endplate at both back and front of Redway's book. The counties are numbered and identified around the perimeter. A second map, THE NORMAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS OF PENNSYLVANIA also appears as a front endplate. Thirteen normal schools, which trained school teachers, are identified with location. Today, these schools are known as the State System of Higher Education and number fifteen, with additional schools at East Stroudsburg and Cheney. A third map, THE COLLEGES AND ART SCHOOLS OF PENNSYLVANIA also appears as a back endplate. Thirty-four colleges, including medical and dental schools, are named and located. Today, there are many more of these, including the many community colleges. The latter two maps have at bottom "R. MCN. & Co.", that is, Rand McNally. The maps look to be lithographs, but Rand McNally typically used the wax engraving process.
1891 Sadlier's Excelsior Geography - Number Three - Including Local, Physical, Descriptive, Historical, Mathematical, Comparative, Topical and Ancient Geography - with Synoptical Reviews, Map-Drawing, and Relief Maps - By a Catholic Teacher. New York: William H. Sadlier, Publisher. Copyright, 1875, 1882, 1887 by. W. H. Sadlier. However, an 1891 date is mentioned on an update page at the front, so that date is used here. This is a 126 page textbook plus about 20 pages of addendums, and was intended for Catholic schools. It certainly does have a religious bent: "There can be but one true Religion; nevertheless, there are many religions professed and followed by mankind." And this from a Historical section: "Adam and Eve were placed in the garden of Eden, (B.C. 4004). Eden was probably situated in the western part of Asia." There is a Middle Atlantic States map, shown below, and Pennsylvania is included in the following discussion on pages 33 , 34, 35 , 36. In addition to the maps, there are many black & white wood engraving illustrations. Each section is accompanied by "General Questions," and the book also covers Mexico, Central and South America, West Indies, Europe, Africa and Asia. The last section is "Complete Topical Reviews in Geography; for Study, Reviews, Examinations, and Reference." There is also a table showing the United States population in 1890 by state and city. Printed in relief probably from wax engraving plates. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. Copyright 1887. This regional map on page 32 of the Sadlier geography includes New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia. There are small regional and New York City insets at top, and a Philadelphia inset at bottom. There is a time scale at the top and an elevation section at bottom. The latitudinal location of selected cities is shown along the left and right edges. In addition to the milage scale, there is a Scale of Railroad Time and a Scale of Steamship Time. Lines of average temperature are shown. All in all, this is one of the most jam-packed maps seen. Printed from a wax engraving plate. Scale: 1 inch = 69 miles. Size: 10.75 x 8.25 inches.
1891 Niles's Standard Geography, Mathematical, Physical, Political. American Book Company, New York. Copyright 1887, D.D. Merrill. The author's name, Sanford Niles, appears only following the preface. The first edition was in 1887, however in this printing 1891 census data is used, so it is dated 1891. This book has 134 pages with about 30 printed color maps and many black and white illustrations, plus a few small black & white maps. The first sixty pages are a 'physical' geography and the remainder a 'political' geography. The Middle Atlantic states description is on pages 72 , 74, 75 , 76; while a related map described below is on page 73. Some of the illustrations are large and detailed, see page 74 for example, and are marked Moss Eng. Co. N.Y., who perhaps specialized in this sort of thing. Printed in relief from wax engraving plates. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. Moss Engaving Co. N.Y. This map is page 73 in the Niles geography above. The region from New York to Virginia is included with an inset of Long Island at the top, and an inset of the western tip of Virginia at left. The map has been printed from wax engraving plates in at least two passes to include the color. Scale: 1 inch = 65 miles. Size: 10.5 x 8.5 inches.
1896 The Werner Introductory Geography By H. S. Tarbell. Werner School Book Company, Chicago. This copy appears to be the first edition. This text for smaller children has 188 pages with color maps and black & white illustrations. Pennsylvania is covered under the Middle States description which begins on the bottom of page 79, and continues on pages 81, 82, 83. Page 80 is the map described below. Printed in relief from wax engraving plates. Size: 12 x 10 inches.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. The Werner Company. Here the middle Atlantic states extend from New York to Virginia. There are two tiny insets of Long Island and the western tip of Virginia at the top. The map has been printed from wax engraving plates in at least two passes to include the color. Scale: 1 inch = 95 miles. Size: 7.25 x 5.5 inches.
1897 The Rand-McNally Elementary Geography, By Florence Holbrook. Illustrated by diagrams, colored maps, and engravings, prepared expressly for this work. Chicago and New York: Rand, McNally & Company. This is the second of four books in the Rand-McNally Geographical Series which apparently began in 1894 with subsequent printings. Most of the maps are dated 1894. The first half of this 152 page book is a physical geography and the last half a political geography. The Middle Atlantic states description, which includes Pennsylvania, is on pages 89, 90 . At the back is an eight page Pennsylvania addendum described below. Printed in relief from wax engraving plates. Size: 9.5 x 8 inches.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. Copyright 1894 by Rand, McNally & Co. This map includes the region from New York to Virginia and has printed color. It appears on page 88 of the Holbrook geography and is relatively simple with just a few towns named, streams and mountains are indicated. Printed from a wax engraving plate. Scale: 1 inch = 100 miles. Size: 8 x 6 inches.
( (Pennsylvania). This untitled two page map appears in the eight page Pennsylvania addendum at the back of the Holbrook geography described above. The title of the addendum is simply Pennsylvania with no recognized authorship, and its pages are unnumbered, so here they will be called a , b-c, d-e , and f. Also on page f is a partial page elevation map. The large map has been bound with a tab so it lays open. In printed color from a wax engraving plate. Scale: 1 inch = 26 miles. Size: 8 x 12 inches.
1898 Natural Advanced Geography - Edition for Pennsylvania and New Jersey. By Jacques W. Redway and Russell Hinman, copyright 1898, by The American Book Company. The American Book Company was a successor to D. Appleton. This appears to be a first edition for high school level. "In its newer aspects school geography demands much that is not to be found in the older textbooks, as a glance through this volume will indicate. One of its prime requirements is the arrangement of the apparently isolated and unrelated facts of geography into such order that their correlation may be perceived and the unity of nature recognized." So the unity of nature was recognized long before the enviromental movement. This is a 162 page book with a Pennsylvania addendum described below. There are twenty-five full page color maps and numerous black & white illustrations. Some illustrations are reproduced from photos and some are original, possibly wood engravings. The Pennsylvania description appears on page 70 . The text, illustrations, and maps are printed in relief from wax engraving plates. Size: 12.5 x 10.25 inches.
NORTHERN SECTION. E.Y. Farqunar Del. Bradley & Poates N.Y. This map appears on pages 66-67 just prior to the Pennsylvania description. There are insets of Chicago, New York, and Pennsylvania. Printed from multiple wax engraving plates with printed color. Scale: 1 inch = 133 miles. Size: 8.5 x 17 inches.
(1898) PENNSYLVANIA. This anonymous two page map appears on pages 2-3 of the Pennsylvania addendum in Redway & Hinman titled: Geography of Pennsylvania, by Martin G. Brumbaugh, Professor of Pedagogy in the University of Pennsylvania. This addendum is the same as in the 1912 Maury and 1916 Roddy geographies also shown here. Its remaining pages are: 1 , 4, 5 , 6, 7 , 8, 9 , 10. The map shows many towns, railroad lines and river systems, and mountains by hachures. The counties are separated by a five color scheme laid down by a screen of lines. The map has been tipped in so it lays flat and all of it can be seen. It is printed in relief from a wax engraving with printed color. Text on the verso. Scale: 1 inch = 17 miles. Size: 10.5 x 17 inches.

Geography Books

1790 to 1850

1900 to 1950

Copyright 2009 by Harold Cramer. All rights reserved.
Revised March, 2010; March 2012.


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